Peppers, an annual herbaceous plant height 0,20-0,60 m homeland – Mexico. In the 16th century, it caught on in Europe and now cultivated worldwide.
Stem erect, leaves petiolate, oblong-ovate, pointed, entire. Leaf color from green to dark green. Flowers are white, yellow, white or purple, on long stalks, drooping. It flowers from June to September. Fruit – a relatively large, hollow, oblong or globose berry length of 0.10-0.20 m and a width of 70-80 mm.
The most famous modern producers of pepper are Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Italy, Greece, Spain and California. Grown from seedlings. In an open pound is planted in mid-May, because they do not tolerate frost.
Today we know many kinds of peppers, among them dlinnoplodnye, with large fleshy fruit, a variety of small-fruited, some length of 10 mm, small round, for example, the so-called. cherry peppers (cultivated cultivar ‘Coral’), various kinds of peppers, from the so-called. fruit only to the burning.
The chemical composition.
The main component is an alkaloid capsaicin pepper, giving him a burning taste, and it contains 10-15% fatty oils and carotenoids kapsorubin, capsanthin and carotenes. Much pepper in vitamin C, vitamin A and B2, as well as sugars, fats and fatty oils in the seeds.
Pepper has a reinforcing effect, improves digestion, increases appetite and skin irritant.
Pepper has a spicy aroma and weak depending on the kind of spicy flavor to even the most acute and burning taste. In the pharmaceutical industry is used for the manufacture of drugs – tinctures, plasters and extracts for the isolation of the alkaloid. The kitchen uses fresh vegetables as sweet and hot peppers as a spice and a dry form of the hammer. Pepper used in soups, especially tomato, fish, goulash, almost all kinds of meat, fish, sauces, beans, cabbage and rice. It is indispensable in the manufacture of many types of sausages and meat products. Pepper added to taste in a variety of salads and appetizers. Fresh pepper is used in salads mixed with other vegetables. Vegetable pepper served with meat, the bread, cheese and to the various in different combinations. He preserved with various vegetables on their own. Pepper can not pour in boiling oil or fat, because it loses color, turning black and gorknet.